Enhanced sludge granulation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors by aluminum chloride

Chemosphere. 2001 Jul;44(1):31-6. doi: 10.1016/s0045-6535(00)00381-7.


Two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were concurrently operated for 146 days to examine the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on the sludge granulation process during start-up. Sludge granulation (defined as that over 10% of granules were larger than 2.0 mm) was achieved in the control reactor (R1) in approximate three months. Introduction of Al3+ at a concentration of 300 mg/l reduced the sludge granulation time by approximate one month. Throughout the experiment the AlCl3-added reactor (R2) had a higher biomass concentration, e.g., 13.8 g-MLVSS/l versus 12.8 g-MLVSS/l on Day 146. Granules became visible earlier in R2 compared with R1 (35 days versus 65 days). The average size of granules from R2 was larger than that from R1. The results demonstrated that AlCl3 enhanced the sludge granulation process in the UASB reactors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum Chloride
  • Aluminum Compounds / chemistry*
  • Bacteria, Anaerobic / metabolism*
  • Bioreactors
  • Chlorides / chemistry*
  • Industrial Waste
  • Particle Size
  • Sewage / chemistry*
  • Waste Disposal, Fluid / methods*


  • Aluminum Compounds
  • Chlorides
  • Industrial Waste
  • Sewage
  • Aluminum Chloride