Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research

J Appl Psychol. 2001 Jun;86(3):425-45. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.425.


The field of organizational justice continues to be marked by several important research questions, including the size of relationships among justice dimensions, the relative importance of different justice criteria, and the unique effects of justice dimensions on key outcomes. To address such questions, the authors conducted a meta-analytic review of 183 justice studies. The results suggest that although different justice dimensions are moderately to highly related, they contribute incremental variance explained in fairness perceptions. The results also illustrate the overall and unique relationships among distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice and several organizational outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, evaluation of authority, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal, performance). These findings are reviewed in terms of their implications for future research on organizational justice.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Decision Making
  • Endpoint Determination
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control
  • Job Satisfaction*
  • Organizational Culture*
  • Personnel Management
  • Research Design
  • Social Justice*