Long-term causes of death after traumatic brain injury

Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jul;80(7):510-6; quiz 517-9. doi: 10.1097/00002060-200107000-00009.


Objective: To determine which causes of death are more frequent in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and by how much, compared with the general population. Our focus was the period beginning 1 yr after injury.

Design: Subjects were 2320 Californians with long-term mental disability after a TBI at age 10 yr or more, followed up between 1988 and 1997. The units of study were person-years, each linked to the subject's age, gender, level of ambulation, time since injury, and cause of death (if any) for the specific year. Observed numbers of cause-specific deaths were compared with numbers expected according to general population mortality rates.

Results: Mortality was higher between 1.0 and 5.0 yr postinjury than after 5.0 yr and was strongly related to reduced mobility. Death rates were elevated for circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, choking/suffocation, and seizures, with seizure deaths being relatively frequent, even among the most ambulatory.

Conclusions: Death rates for several causes are elevated in persons with long-term sequelae of TBI. The increased risk of choking/suffocation should be of interest to caregivers. Life expectancy seems to be reduced, even for patients who are fully ambulatory.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Airway Obstruction / etiology
  • Asphyxia / etiology
  • Brain Injuries / complications
  • Brain Injuries / mortality*
  • California / epidemiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cause of Death*
  • Child
  • Databases, Factual
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Life Expectancy
  • Middle Aged
  • Population Surveillance
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors