Background: Regional anticoagulation with trisodium citrate is an effective form of anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for patients with contraindications to heparin. However, because of the metabolic complications of trisodium citrate, it is a complicated technique requiring specialized dialysis solutions. We have designed a simplified protocol for citrate regional anticoagulation for CRRT.
Methods: Two percent trisodium citrate was delivered at 250 mL/h via the prefilter port of a COBE PRISMA device, with the rate adjusted to maintain a postfilter ionized calcium (iCa++) <0.5 mmol/L. A central calcium gluconate infusion was used to maintain a systemic iCa++ at 1.1 mmol/L. A standard dialysate solution consisting of 0.9% saline, KCl 3 mmol/L, and MgSO4 1 mmol/L was delivered at 1000 mL/h. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes and complications associated with this protoco1 in 29 patients treated from July 1999 to October 1999, evaluating the frequency of clotting of the dialyzer, bleeding complications, citrate toxicity, and patient mortality.
Results: The Kaplan-Meier curve for dialyzer survival demonstrated a 61% survival rate at 48 hours. There were no episodes of significant bleeding or citrate toxicity. Seventy-two percent of patients died for reasons unrelated to CRRT.
Conclusions: A CRRT protocol using regional 2% trisodium citrate anticoagulation is not associated with significant bleeding complications or citrate toxicity, and represents a simplified approach compared with previous applications using 4% trisodium citrate.