Objective: The effect of a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on blood pressure, glycemic control, lipids and insulin sensitivity was evaluated in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Design and methods: A randomized, unpaired diet intervention was performed in 27 women with gestational diabetes mellitus in an outpatient clinic. After randomization the women received either a high-carbohydrate diet (H-CHO) or a high-MUFA diet (H-MUFA) from the 33rd gestational week of pregnancy. Outcome measures were 24 h ambulatory blood pressure, blood lipids, glycemic control and insulin sensitivity estimated by an intravenous glucose tolerance test.
Results: The 24 h diastolic blood pressure increased more in the H-CHO group than in the H-MUFA group (P<0.04).
Conclusions: After 5 weeks of treatment with a MUFA-enriched diet, no increase in 24 h diastolic blood pressure and no adverse effects on blood lipids were seen. The favorable effect on the blood pressure by the MUFA diet is a possible non-medication treatment. The H-MUFA diet had no advantage to the H-CHO diet in ameliorating the decline of insulin sensitivity in third term of pregnancy in GDM.