Objectives: To compare the effect of alcohol-free Mediterranean-type diet (MD) and high-fat diet (HFD) on plasma concentration of emergent haemostatic cardiovascular risk factors (HCVRF). Also, to test if red wine supplementation modifies HCVRF, independent of diet.
Design, subjects and intervention: Controlled prospective intervention study. Two groups, each of 21 healthy male university students (22+/-3.4 y), received either MD or HFD for 90 days. Between days 30 and 60, both diets were supplemented with 240 ml/day of red wine. Baseline and T30, T60 and T90-day samples were drawn. No drop out from the study was observed.
Setting: University campus and outpatient nutrition clinic.
Results: Volunteers on HFD at T30 had increases in pro-coagulants fibrinogen (22%), factor VIIc (9%), and factor VIIIc (4%), and decreases in natural anticoagulants antithrombin III (3%), protein C (11%) and protein S (6%) and of 20% in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. At the same time, individuals on MD had increases in fibrinogen (4%), antithrombin III (5%), protein C (3%), protein S (2.7%), and decreases in factor VIIIc (9%), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (21%). After adjusting by baseline values, MD was associated with lower plasma fibrinogen (P=0.03), factor VIIc (P=0.034) and factor VIIIc (P=0.0057) and with higher levels of protein S (P=0.013). Red wine supplementation, in both diets, resulted in decreased plasma fibrinogen (P=0.001) and factor VIIc (P=0.05), and increased tissue plasminogen activator antigen (P=0.01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (P=0.0003). Wine consumption was also associated with significantly (P=0.01) divergent effects on antithrombin III: it decreased by 10% in individuals on HFD but increased slightly in those on MD. No effects of diet or wine were detected in plasma protein C and C-reactive protein.
Conclusion: MD and moderate consumption of red wine have complementary, mostly beneficial effects on HCVRF.