HOPA is an Xq13 chromosome gene that codes for a RXR nuclear receptor co-activator. In a prior study of the genetic basis of schizophrenia, we showed that exonic polymorphisms in HOPA were associated with increased risk of schizophrenia and hypothyroidism in a large cohort of probands from New York. In an attempt to replicate these findings, we examined this relationship in a cohort of 173 schizophrenic probands (128 males and 45 females providing 218 alleles) from Iowa. Consistent with the prior findings, we found an increased rate of the HOPA12bP exonic polymorphism in schizophrenic probands compared with random newborn controls (9 of 218 alleles vs. 33 of 2,049 alleles, P < 0.02). Furthermore, retrospective review of the medical records showed that two of the nine probands possessing the HOPA12bp allele in whom thyroid function was assessed were hypothyroid compared with 6 of 164 probands possessing the normal HOPAwild allele(s) (P < 0.06). We conclude that the HOPA12bp polymorphism shows a nominally significant association with schizophrenia and a nominal trend for association with hypothyroidism in our study and that further studies are required to define the features of this syndrome and the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis.