The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate self-reported practices of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among primary care physicians (PCPs) in medical organizations and (2) identify factors associated with screening performance. We surveyed a census sample of 204 PCPs from two medical organizations in Houston, TX. Outcomes were PCPs' self-reports of screening with fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and/or flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS).2-7 Independent variables included physician demographics, perception of screening efficacy, level of agreement with screening guidelines, and perceptions of screening barriers. Variables were compared using Student's t-tests, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. Regression was used to examine factors associated with PCPs' reports of screening. Our response rate was 56% (n = 115). Many PCPs reported recommending and/or performing/ordering screening with both FOBT (82%) and FS (87%). They more often reported believing that FS was "very effective" for reducing mortality than was FOBT (76% vs. 37%). Physicians perceived that barriers to patient compliance with CRC screening were stronger than barriers to making screening recommendations. Significant test-specific differences in reported barriers to screening were found. Results revealed high awareness and self-reported practice of CRC screening in this study population. Further examination of how barriers influence CRC screening practices by PCPs in medical organizations will be important for improving population screening rates.