Mutation analysis for autosomal dominant hereditary breast/ovarian cancer genes (BRCA1/BRCA2) became an important technique for women at risk of carrying these mutations. Healthy female mutation carriers have a high lifetime risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer and may opt for frequent breast and ovary surveillance or prophylactic surgery (mastectomy and/or oophorectomy). Psychological distress was assessed in 78 healthy women at risk of having inherited a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation opting for genetic testing and 56 partners several weeks prior to ("pre-test") and after ("post-test") learning about their DNA test result. Twenty-five women were found to be mutation carriers, and 53 were non-mutation carriers. One goal of the study was to identify individuals at risk for high distress in the weeks following disclosure of the test result. Interview transcripts were used to give a fuller picture of pre- and post-test distress. High post-test anxiety was reported by 20% of the mutation carrier women and by 35% of their partners. Eleven percent of women without the mutation and 13% of their partners reported high post-test anxiety levels. High post-test anxiety in women was significantly related to 1) a high level of pre-test anxiety and 2) being a mutation carrier. Women without a mutation who had a sister identified as a mutation carrier recently had higher post-test levels of depression than the other non-mutation carriers. It is suggested to consider seriously the need for psychological support in mutation carriers who had been anxious at pre-test already. For most non-mutation carriers, psychological follow-up might be of lesser importance, but those having a sister receiving an unfavorable test result should be informed about the possibility that they might not feel relief.