Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare syndrome characterized by the combination of acute optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, usually not seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating syndromes of the central nervous system (CNS). A high prevalence of various autoantibodies has been described in patients with NMO suggesting a polyclonal activation of the humoral immune system. We examined autoantibody responses to myelin (MBP, MOG with isotypes and epitopes) and astroglial (S100beta) antigens in four patients with NMO by ELISA and Immunoblot. All patients showed a positive anti-MOG response, with one showing reaction to the MOG epitope corresponding to amino acid sequence 63-87. MBP-autoantibodies were only detected in two and S100beta-autoantibodies in one patient. Despite the limited number of samples, these findings suggest a predominant anti-MOG rather than anti-MBP or anti-S100beta autoantibody response in NMO, though no NMO-specific antibody pattern was found, which is in keeping with a widespread acute immune activation, including a strong B-cell response.