O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are currently being generated to develop an O-serotyping scheme for the genus Acinetobacter and to provide potent tools to study the diversity of O-antigens among Acinetobacter strains. In this report, Acinetobacter baumannii strains from the Czech Republic and from two clonal groups identified in Northwestern Europe (termed clones I and II) were investigated for their reactivity with a panel of O-antigen-specific MAbs generated against Acinetobacter strains from various species. The bacteria were characterized for their ribotype, biotype, and antibiotic susceptibility and the presence of the 8.7-kb plasmid pAN1. By using the combination of these typing profiles, the Czech strains could be classified into four previously defined groups (A. Nemec, L. Janda, O. Melter, and L. Dijkshoorn, J. Med. Microbiol. 48:287-296, 1999): two relatively homogeneous groups of multiresistant strains (termed groups A and B), a heterogeneous group of other multiresistant strains, and a group of susceptible strains. O-antigen reactivity was observed primarily with MAbs generated against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter baumannii strains. A comparison of reaction patterns confirmed the previously hypothesized clonal relationship between group A and clone I strains, which are also similar in other properties. The results show that there is limited O-antigen variability among strains with similar geno- and phenotypic characteristics and are suggestive of a high prevalence of certain A. baumannii serotypes in the clinical environment. It is also shown that O-antigen-specific MAbs are useful for the follow-up of strains causing outbreaks in hospitals.