The relationship between diabetes and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is controversial. In this study, we examined the possible relationship between HP infection and type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. Sixty-three Chinese type 2 diabetic patients (mean age +/- SD: 49.9 +/- 12.0 years; range: 17-76 years) were recruited irrespective of the duration of diabetes or type of therapy. Twenty-nine (46%) of them had upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the other 34 (54%) did not. Another 55 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic subjects (mean age +/- SD: 45.6 +/- 15.6 years, p=0.098; range 18-79 years) with dyspepsia indicated for upper endoscopy were recruited as a comparison group. Upper endoscopy was performed with antral mucosal biopsy specimens taken for rapid urease test (CLO test). HP infection was considered to be present if the rapid urease test was positive. The rates of HP infection of the diabetic and non-diabetic individuals were 50.8% and 56.4% respectively (p: NS). The rate of HP infection was similar between the 2 groups of diabetic patients with or without gastrointestinal symptoms (42.9% vs. 56.3%, p: NS). Using logistic regression analysis (forward stepwise) with age, sex, glycaemic control, duration of diabetes and upper gastrointestinal symptoms as independent variables to predict the risk of HP infection in diabetic patients, none of the parameters enter into the model. In conclusion, the rate of HP infection in Hong Kong Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes is around 50%, which is similar to control subjects. No association was found between HP infection, glycaemic status, and duration of diabetes and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in these diabetic subjects.