The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI) in neonates. We undertook a prospective investigation of the potential risk factors for CABSI (patient-related, treatment-related and catheter-related) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using univariate and multivariate techniques. We also investigated the relationship between catheter hub and catheter exit site colonization with CABSI.Thirty-five episodes of CABSI occurred in 862 central catheters over a period of 8028 catheter-days, with a cumulative incidence of 4.1/100 catheters and an incidence density of 4.4/1000 catheter days. Factors independently associated with CABSI were: catheter hub colonization (odds ratio [OR] = 44.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.5 to 134.4), exit site colonization (OR = 14.4, CI = 4.8 to 42.6), extremely low weight (< 1000 g) at time of catheter insertion (OR = 5.13, CI = 2.1 to 12.5), duration of parenteral nutrition (OR=1.04, CI=1.0 to 1.08) and catheter insertion after first week of life (OR = 2.7, CI = 1.1 to 6.7). In 15 (43%) out of the 35 CABSI episodes the catheter hub was colonized, in nine (26%) cases the catheter exit site was colonized and in three (9%) cases colonization was found at both sites. This prospective cohort study on CABSI in a NICU identified five risk factors of which two can be used for risk-stratified incidence density description (birthweight and time of catheter insertion). It also emphasized the importance of catheter exit site, hub colonization and exposure to parenteral nutrition in the pathogenesis of CABSI.
Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.