We currently recognize five large ubiquitous superfamilies and one small eukaryotic-specific family in which cellular multidrug efflux pumps occur. One, the ABC superfamily, includes members that use ATP hydrolysis to drive drug efflux, but the MFS, RND, MATE and DMT superfamilies include members that are secondary carriers, functioning by drug:H(+)or drug:Na(+)antiport mechanisms. The small MET family seems to be restricted to endosomal membranes of eukaryotes, and only a single such system has been functionally characterized. In this review article, these families of drug transporters are discussed and evaluated from phylogenetic standpoints.
Copyright 2001 Academic Press.