We investigated the associations between abnormal glucose tolerance and cognitive impairment in elderly subjects, taking into account some other known determinants of cognitive function. The study population consisted of community-living northern Finnish subjects aged 70 y or over (n=379, of whom were 141 men). Thirty-one percent of the men and women (n=43 for the men and n=75 for the women) scored 23 or less in the Mini Mental State Examination. A low level of basic education and high age were the most powerful predictors of impaired cognition. When adjusted for age, gender, educational level, presence of cardiovascular disease (or hypertension), use of alcohol, number of depressive symptoms and poor vision, abnormal glucose tolerance (including IGT) was also weakly associated with impaired cognitive function among these elderly subjects.