Mood disorders are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescence. As a result, many adolescents are treated with psychopharmacologic agents such as antidepressants and mood stabilizers. To date, research into the safety and efficacy of these medications has lagged behind clinical practice. Several controlled trials of antidepressants in this population have recently been completed or are ongoing, yet few controlled trials of mood stabilizers have been conducted. Although acute efficacy of antidepressants is being addressed, many questions remain about pharmacological treatment of early-onset mood disorders. This article will focus on unmet research needs for the psychopharmacologic treatment of child and adolescent mood disorders.