The proto-oncogene Trks encode the high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinases for neurotrophins of a nerve growth factor (NGF) family. The Trk signals spatiotemporally regulate neural development and maintenance of neural network. However, Trk was originally cloned as an oncogene fused with the tropomyosin gene in the extracellular domain. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the rearranged Trk oncogene is often observed in non-neuronal neoplasms such as colon and papillary thyroid cancers, while the signals through the receptors encoded by the proto-oncogene Trks regulate growth, differentiation and apoptosis of the tumors with neuronal origin such as neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. The intracellular Trk signaling pathway is also different depending on the Trk family receptors, cell types and the grade of transformation. Furthermore, developmentally programmed cell death of neuron, which is largely regulated by neurotrophin signaling, is at least in part controlled by tumor suppressors p53 and p73 as well as their antagonist DeltaNp73. Thus, the Trks and their downstream signaling function in both ontogenesis and oncogenesis. In this short review, the dynamic role of the Trk family receptors signaling in neural development, neurogenic tumors and other cancers will be discussed.