The occurrence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and atraumatic lower-extremity amputations is significantly greater in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than those with normal renal function. Moreover, the mortality for dialysis patients undergoing atraumatic lower-extremity amputations is far greater. Because PVD requiring amputation is an extreme form of PVD, we tested the hypothesis that mortality and intermediate outcomes for patients with ESRD undergoing lower-extremity revascularization, a less extreme form of PVD, would be equivalent to that for patients without ESRD. This is a retrospective case-control analysis of lower-extremity revascularization in patients with ESRD. Procedures in patients with ESRD were matched with procedures in non-ESRD controls for patient age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, and hospital setting. Patient survival, graft survival, and limb salvage rates were determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Subjective interpretation of functional and symptomatic improvement was determined by telephone interviews with patients or relatives. Thirty-one procedures were performed on 20 patients with ESRD and 64 matched procedures were performed on 57 patients without ESRD. In the ESRD group, median patient survival was 1.72 years compared with 5.17 years for the control group (P < 0.001). Time to 50% limb loss was 1.24 years in the ESRD group and longer than 5.65 years in the control group (P < 0.001). Time to 50% graft patency loss was 0.70 years in the ESRD group and longer than 5.5 years in the control group (P < 0.05). Subjective improvement was less in patients with ESRD. Outcomes of lower-extremity revascularization in patients with ESRD are inferior to those in non-ESRD controls. The mortality rate for patients with ESRD who undergo revascularization is extremely high. Patient-related variables (eg, increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease) and/or provider-specific factors (eg, timing of surgery in the course of PVD) may be responsible for poorer outcomes.