Objective: This study investigated the role of dissociation as a mediator of mental health outcomes in children with a history of sexual abuse.
Method: The study group consisted of 114 children and adolescents (ages 10-18 years) who were wards of the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services and were living in residential treatment centers. Interviews, provider ratings, and chart reviews were used to assess the relationship of childhood abuse history, dissociative responses, and psychopathology.
Results: Sexual abuse history was significantly associated with dissociation, whereas a history of physical abuse was not. Both sexual abuse and dissociation were independently associated with several indicators of mental health disturbance, including risk-taking behavior (suicidality, self-mutilation, and sexual aggression). Severity of sexual abuse was not associated with dissociation or psychopathology. Analysis of covariance indicated that dissociation had an important mediating role between sexual abuse and psychiatric disturbance. These results were replicated across several assessment sources and varied perspectives.
Conclusions: The findings suggest a unique relationship between sexual abuse and dissociation. Dissociation may be a critical mediator of psychiatric symptoms and risk-taking behavior among sexually abused children. The assessment of dissociation among children may be an important aspect of treatment.