How recombinant insulin analogs improve insulin therapy of diabetes mellitus: pathophysiology, clinical practice and recommendations

Med Sci Monit. Jul-Aug 2001;7(4):848-59.

Abstract

According to the latest prognoses, 300 million people are expected to suffer from diabetes (particularly type 2) in 2025; diabetes will become a new epidemics of the coming century. Therefore it is so important to get acquainted with the pathomechanism of diabetes-related disorders and the possibilities of effective treatment. During the last decade, numerous prospective epidemiological studies have been completed, which have considerably extended our knowledge of the pathomechanism of disturbances and their effect on late complications of diabetes. Resistance to insulin has an important role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. However, there is substantial evidence indicating that impairment or regression of rapid insulin secretion phase at the early stage of the disease is a factor of no lesser importance. The lack of appropriate insulin concentration after the stimulation by food ingestion (first 30 min after the meal), leads to permanent, treatment-resistant hyperglycemia. The postulated attempts to obtain a 'nearly normoglycemic' condition, as well as the results of prospective epidemiological studies proving that achieving this aim improves the prognosis of diabetic patients, prompt the researchers to search for the drugs or treatment schedules, which could effectively restore the impaired insulin secretion, and its early phase in particular, in type 2 diabetes. Human insulin analogs and their pre-formulated commercially available mixtures seem very promising in this respect.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Pregnancy
  • Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use*

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Recombinant Proteins