In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy

Nat Med. 2001 Jul;7(7):864-8. doi: 10.1038/89997.


Intravital microscopy coupled with chronic animal window models has provided stunning insight into tumor pathophysiology, including gene expression, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and migration, vascular, interstitial and lymphatic transport, metabolic microenvironment and drug delivery. However, the findings to date have been limited to the tumor surface (< 150 microm). Here, we show that the multiphoton laser-scanning microscope can provide high three-dimensional resolution of gene expression and function in deeper regions of tumors. These insights could be critical to the development of novel therapeutics that target not only the tumor surface, but also internal regions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Adhesion
  • Gene Expression*
  • Hemodynamics
  • Lasers
  • Leukocytes / cytology
  • Microscopy / methods*
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / blood supply*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic*
  • Photons