The study aim was to investigate the correlates of smoking and alcohol drinking in post-therapeutic head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. A cross-sectional design was used with a sample of 191 patients. Data were collected by interview and chart review. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlates of dependent variables. Higher education, living with one's partner, later stage, laryngeal site and having surgery or combined therapy were associated with decreased odds for smoking. There was a significant trend for decreasing odds for smoking with increasing stage. Male gender, stage I disease and longer time since treatment were associated with increased odds for drinking alcohol. There was a significant trend for increased odds for drinking with increased time since treatment. These findings suggest that smoking and alcohol drinking have different patterns of associated variables in post-therapeutic H&N cancer patients, which has important implications for intervention design.