Trends in parent and friend influence during adolescence: the case of adolescent cigarette smoking

Addict Behav. 2001 May-Jun;26(3):349-61. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4603(00)00110-6.


A common characterization of adolescence is that parent influence decreases and friend influence increases as adolescents age. From that, we hypothesized that the association between parent and adolescent smoking decreases and the association between friend and adolescent smoking increases as adolescents become older. The hypothesis is tested with data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Adolescent smoking is measured as progressions to more frequent smoking and as continuations from prior smoking levels. There is no support for the hypothesis, a finding consistent with the earlier panel study that tested it. The age-specific findings are discussed in the context of programs designed to influence adolescent cigarette smoking and why the hypothesis that drove this study was not confirmed. Among supplementary findings reported is that adolescent smoking is more influenced by friend smoking than by parent smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leadership*
  • Male
  • Parents*
  • Peer Group*
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Smoking Prevention