Validity and sensitivity to change of the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury

J Neurotrauma. 2001 Jun;18(6):575-84. doi: 10.1089/089771501750291819.


Using a structured outcome interview, this study addressed the validity and sensitivity to change of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and the Extended GOS (GOSE) in a prospective study of patients who sustained mild (n = 30) to moderate (n = 13) traumatic brain injury (TBI) or general trauma (n = 44). The patients were recruited from the emergency center or inpatient units of Ben Taub General Hospital and invited to participate in follow-up examinations at 3 and 6 months. Using a series of functional outcome measures, assessment of affective status, and neuropsychological tests as criteria, the validity of the GOSE generally exceeded the GOS. Analysis of the outcome data for the patients who completed both the 3-month and 6-month assessments disclosed that the GOSE was more sensitive to change than the GOS. Comparison of the 3-month outcome data disclosed that the GOSE and GOS scores did not differ for the TBI and general trauma groups. These findings lend further support for utilization of the GOSE in clinical trials when it is based on a structured interview.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Glasgow Outcome Scale / standards*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Factors