Penicillin-binding proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were compared with those of Escherichia coli. These in P. aeruginosa were found exclusively in the cytoplasmic membrane fraction (fraction soluble in sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate). Sodium dodecyl sulfate/acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins bound to [14C]penicillin G resulted in the separation of six major bands and several minor bands. The proteins in these bands are referred to as proteins 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in order of increasing electrophoretical mobility. The electrophoretic mobilities and other properties of penicillin-binding proteins in P. aeruginosa and E. coli were compared and correlated. Fundamentally they seem to be very similar in the two bacteria, but proteins 1A and 1B in P. aeruginosa seem to correspond respectively to proteins 1B and 1A in E. coli, and protein 6 seems to be missing or present in only small amount in P. aeruginosa. In addition, the affinities of currently developed beta-lactam antibiotics to each protein of P. aeruginosa and E. coli were examined in relation to the morphological changes of the cells induced by these antibiotics and their antibacterial potencies. Mecillinam showed high affinity to only protein 2 in both P. aeruginosa and E. coli. At a minimal inhibitory concentration, it converted cells of both P. aeruginosa and E. coli from rods to spherical cells, although its minimal inhibitory concentration was much higher for P. aeruginosa than for E. coli.