In plant species with large genomes such as wheat or barley, genome organization at the level of DNA sequence is largely unknown. The largest sequences that are publicly accessible so far from Triticeae genomes are two 60 kb and 66 kb intervals from barley. Here, we report on the analysis of a 211 kb contiguous DNA sequence from diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L.). Five putative genes were identified, two of which show similarity to disease resistance genes. Three of the five genes are clustered in a 31 kb gene-enriched island while the two others are separated from the cluster and from each other by large stretches of repetitive DNA. About 70% of the contig is comprised of several classes of transposable elements. Ten different types of retrotransposons were identified, most of them forming a pattern of nested insertions similar to those found in maize and barley. Evidence was found for major deletion, insertion and duplication events within the analysed region, suggesting multiple mechanisms of genome evolution in addition to retrotransposon amplification. Seven types of foldback transposons, an element class previously not described for wheat genomes, were characterized. One such element was found to be closely associated with genes in several Triticeae species and may therefore be of use for the identification of gene-rich regions in these species.