Environmentally sensitive, SA-dependent defense responses in the cpr22 mutant of Arabidopsis

Plant J. 2001 May;26(4):447-59. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2001.2641039.x.


To investigate the signaling pathways through which defense responses are activated following pathogen infection, we have isolated and characterized the cpr22 mutant. This plant carries a semidominant, conditional lethal mutation that confers constitutive expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-1, PR-2, PR-5 and the defensin gene PDF1.2. cpr22 plants also display spontaneous lesion formation, elevated levels of salicylic acid (SA) and heightened resistance to Peronospora parasitica Emco5. The cpr22 locus was mapped to chromosome 2, approximately 2 cM telomeric to the AthB102 marker. By analyzing the progeny of crosses between cpr22 plants and either NahG transgenic plants or npr1 mutants, all of the cpr22-associated phenotypes except PDF1.2 expression were found to be SA dependent. However, the SA signal transducer NPR1 was required only for constitutive PR-1 expression. A cross between cpr22 and ndr1-1 mutants revealed that enhanced resistance to P. parasitica is mediated by an NDR1-dependent pathway, while the other cpr22-induced defenses are not. Crosses between either coi1-1 or etr1-1 mutants further demonstrated that constitutive PDF1.2 expression is mediated by a JA- and ethylene-dependent pathway. Based on these results, the cpr22 mutation appears to induce its associated phenotypes by activating NPR1-dependent and NPR1-independent branches of the SA pathway, as well as an ethylene/JA signaling pathway. Interestingly, the SA-dependent phenotypes, but not the SA-independent phenotypes, are suppressed when cpr22 mutants are grown under high humidity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / microbiology*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins*
  • Chromosome Segregation
  • Cyclopentanes / metabolism
  • Defensins*
  • Ethylenes / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / metabolism
  • Genes, Plant
  • Humidity
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • Models, Biological
  • Mutation
  • Oomycetes
  • Oxylipins
  • Phenotype
  • Plant Diseases / genetics*
  • Plant Growth Regulators / metabolism*
  • Plant Leaves / microbiology
  • Plant Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Salicylic Acid / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Thiadiazoles / pharmacology
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Cyclopentanes
  • Defensins
  • Ethylenes
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  • NDR1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • NPR1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Oxylipins
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Plant Proteins
  • Thiadiazoles
  • Transcription Factors
  • PR-1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • 12-oxophytodienoic acid
  • jasmonic acid
  • ethylene
  • S-methyl benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioate
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • salicylate 1-monooxygenase
  • Salicylic Acid