A family with a (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation significantly linked to a clinical phenotype that includes schizophrenia and affective disorders is described. This translocation generates a LOD score of 3.6 when the disease phenotype is restricted to schizophrenia, of 4.5 when the disease phenotype is restricted to affective disorders, of 7.1 when relatives with recurrent major depression, with bipolar disorder, or with schizophrenia are all classed as affected. This evidence for linkage is among the strongest reported for a psychiatric disorder. Family members showed no distinctive features by which the psychiatric phenotype could be distinguished from unrelated cases of either schizophrenia or affective disorders, and no physical, neurological, or dysmorphic conditions co-occurred with psychiatric symptoms. Translocation carriers and noncarriers had the same mean intelligence quotient. Translocation carriers were similar to subjects with schizophrenia and different from noncarriers and controls, in showing a significant reduction in the amplitude of the P300 event-related potential (ERP). Furthermore, P300 amplitude reduction and latency prolongation were measured in some carriers of the translocation who had no psychiatric symptoms-a pattern found in other families with multiple members with schizophrenia, in which amplitude of and latency of P300 appear to be trait markers of risk. The results of karyotypic, clinical, and ERP investigations of this family suggest that the recently described genes DISC1 and DISC2, which are directly disrupted by the breakpoint on chromosome 1, may have a role in the development of a disease phenotype that includes schizophrenia as well as unipolar and bipolar affective disorders.