Phylogenetic analyses were carried out on six pleurocapsalean strains and 12 oscillatorialean strains by sequence determination of the 16S rDNA (16S rRNA gene). Although heterocyst-forming strains of the orders Nostocales and Stigonematales were shown to be monophyletic, unicellular strains of the orders Chroococcales and filamentous Oscillatoriales were shown to be polyphyletic, as reported earlier. Moreover, unicellular and baeocyte-forming strains of the order Pleurocapsales, which were thought to be monophyletic, were newly found to be polyphyletic. The results strongly indicate that even morphology was not necessarily reflected in the phylogenetic relationships at the order level. A need exists to reconstruct the taxonomy of cyanobacteria at the order level.