The authors investigated the relation between exposure to wartime events and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in Lebanon, which recently underwent a 16-year civil war. The study population comprised a representative cohort (n = 1,786) of middle-aged and older men and women who, in 1983, participated in a community-based health interview survey. In 1993, the authors traced 87.7 % of the original cohort (n = 1,567) and assessed their vital status, exposure to war-related events, and, in case they had died, cause of death. War experiences were aggregated into different clusters according to type of exposure, realm affected (human vs. property losses), and person central to the event. Women, but not men, had a significantly elevated CVD mortality risk for exposures to human traumas that occurred to them (rate ratio = 3.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 8.05) or their families (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.74). Exposure to property losses and work-related problems carried a greater mortality risk for men, particularly those with lower levels of education, than for women. Subjects displaced during the war had a significantly higher risk for CVD and total mortality. These results suggest that, during prolonged wars, different elements of exposures have a long-term impact on mortality, with effects varying by gender and socioeconomic resources.