Effective risk stratification of surgical and nonsurgical patients for venous thromboembolic disease

Semin Hematol. 2001 Apr;38(2 Suppl 5):12-9. doi: 10.1016/s0037-1963(01)90094-0.


Effective and safe methods of preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) are now widely available, but a significant proportion of patients develop VTE either because thromboprophylaxis has not been used or because the intensity of thromboprophylaxis is not matched to the level of risk. Thromboembolic risk varies widely according to the clinical setting and presence of underlying risk factors, but VTE may not be suspected even in high-risk patients. Clinical risk factors for VTE include recent surgery, cancer, stroke, previous VTE, immobilization, and advanced age. Recent attention has focused on the role of inherited and acquired molecular factors in determining overall thromboembolic risk. These factors include the classic thrombophilias-deficiencies of antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S-and several newly described molecular risk factors: factor V Leiden, the prothrombin 20210A gene mutation, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Based on emerging knowledge of risk factors, several risk assessment models (RAMs) have been devised that stratify patients according to overall VTE risk, allowing thromboprophylaxis to be tailored appropriately. Compared with older risk assessment formulas, current RAMs are simpler and include specific recommendations for thromboprophylaxis based on the available scientific evidence. Consensus documents on VTE prevention classify patients into low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories. More recently, a new risk group, very high risk, has been described. Very-high-risk patients are especially prone to thromboembolic complications and need intensive and in some cases prolonged thromboprophylaxis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Surgical Procedures, Operative / adverse effects
  • Thromboembolism / etiology
  • Thromboembolism / prevention & control
  • Thrombophilia / complications
  • Venous Thrombosis / etiology*
  • Venous Thrombosis / prevention & control