Recently, the LD78beta isoform of the CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha was shown to efficiently chemoattract lymphocytes and monocytes and to inhibit infection of mononuclear cells by R5 HIV-1 strains. We have now demonstrated that after cleavage of the NH2-terminal Ala-Pro dipeptide by CD26, LD78beta(3 - 70) became the most potent chemokine blocking HIV-1. LD78beta(3 - 70) competed tenfold more efficiently than LD78beta(1 - 70) with [125I] RANTES for binding to the CC chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR1. Contrary to LD78alpha, LD78beta(1 - 70) at 30 ng/ml efficiently competed with [125I] RANTES for binding to CCR3 and mobilized calcium in CCR3 transfectants, whereas LD78beta(3 - 70) showed a 30-fold decrease in CCR3 affinity compared to LD78beta(1 - 70). This demonstrates the importance of the penultimate proline in LD78beta(1 - 70) for CCR3 recognition. Both LD78beta isoforms efficiently chemoattracted eosinophils from responsive donors. In contrast, only the CCR3 agonist LD78beta(1 - 70) and not LD78beta(3 - 70), induced calcium increases in eosinophils with low levels of CCR1. In responder neutrophils, LD78beta(3 - 70) elicited calcium fluxes at a 30-fold lower dose (10 ng/ml) compared to intact LD78beta and LD78alpha, whereas the three MIP-1alpha isoforms were equipotent neutrophil chemoattractants. Taken together, both LD78beta isoforms are potent HIV-1 inhibitors (CCR5) and activators for neutrophils (CCR1) and eosinophils (CCR1, CCR3), affecting infection and inflammation.