To assess the immunisation status of children in the states of Bihar, Madhaya Pradesh, Rajasthan and UP the evaluation covered BCG, DPT, OPV, Measles, Pulse Polio and Vitamin A. WHO 30 cluster survey methodology with certain modifications incorporating information on sex of the child, literacy of parents and distance of the village was used. Study covered 30 districts, 900 villages and 6300 children. About 48 per cent of children received all the vaccines (BCG, DPT, OPV, Measles) in these states as compared to 63 per cent at All India level. These states accounted for about 70 per cent of non-immunised children. The coverage levels were lower for children of illiterate mothers and in small, inaccessible and triple villages. The literacy of mother is the key to the success of the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP). Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities should specially be targeted to educate the moters in rural areas. The underserved areas of these four states should have special focus in the programme and hence the tribal, small and inaccessible villages in the coverage should be focused and targeted, immediate improvement in the coverage could also be achieved by better follow-up and reducing drop-out rate.