The authors review their lengthy experience in treating high grade osteosarcoma of the extremity. During the past 20 years many advances have been made in treating high grade osteosarcoma of the extremity. Twenty years ago, in spite of amputation, most patients with this tumor died, whereas today most are cured and amputation is avoided. These advances are mainly due to the development of effective adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens. This review reports on the progress and controversies in the treatment of osteosarcoma.