The term PIBI(D)S has been used to indicate a rare recessively inherited genetic disorder characterized by photosensitivity, mild non-congenital ichthyosis, brittle sulphur-deficient hair with trichoschisis (trichothiodystrophy), impaired intelligence, occasionally decreased fertility and short stature. To the best of our knowledge, about 20 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we report the characterization of the hair, brain, ultraviolet sensitivity and DNA excision repair defects of a new patient affected by PIBI(D)S. The diagnosis of PIBI(D)S syndrome was made in our patient on the basis of the clinical features and then confirmed by hair microscopy and biochemical analysis. Our patient has increased muscular tone, alteration of the deep tendon reflexes and psychomotor retardation, all consistent with hypomyelination of the brain showed by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. A deficiency of DNA repair capacity was demonstrated in our patient. Furthermore, complementation analysis by cell fusion assigned our patient to xeroderma pigmentosum group D. The nucleotide excision repair defect of the other reported patients with PIBI(D)S falls generally into the same group as xeroderma pigmentosum group D and carry a mutation on the same repair gene (XPD). The relationship between these molecular characteristics and the clinical spectrum of PIBI(D)S is discussed.