The DNA polymerase of early embryos of Drosophila melanogaster has been purified to near-homogeneity. The purified enzyme gave a single, catalytically active protein band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, under nondenaturing conditions. Four polypeptides with molecular weights 43,000, 46,000, 58,000, and 148,000 were resolved when this band was electrophoresed under denaturing conditions. At high ionic strengths, the DNA polymerase had a sedimentation coefficient of 8.7 S, a Stokes radius of 78 A and frictional ratio of 1.81, parameters that yield a molecular weight of 280,000. The purified DNA polymerase possessed no detectable endo- or exodeoxyribonuclease, ATPase, or RNA polymerase activity. Using an "activated" DNA template-primer, the enzyme had a pH optimum of 8.5. It was stimulated by (NH4)2SO4, KCl, and to a lesser extent, NaCl. A divalent metal cation was absolutely required; MgCl2 stimulating activity 7-fold more than MnCl2. It was inhibited by low concentrations of N-ethylmaleimide and Aphidicolon. Thus the DNA polymerase of D. melanogaster resembles most closely the alpha-DNA polymerases that have been purified from mammalian cells.