Prevalence of ICA and GAD antibodies at initial presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Singapore children

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jun;14(6):767-72. doi: 10.1515/jpem.2001.14.6.767.


Objective: To determine the prevalence of islet cell antibodies (ICA) and antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in Asian children with diabetes mellitus (DM) at the time of diagnosis.

Patients and methods: 41 children were studied at their initial presentation from 1993 to 2000.

Results: Mean age of onset (+/- SD) of DM was 7.6 (+/- 4.2) years. One or both of the two autoantibodies, ICA and anti-GAD, were present in 17 of the 41 children (41.5%) at the time of diagnosis. Comparing the group of children with autoantibodies and the group without detectable autoantibodies, there were no significant differences in body mass index (15.4 vs. 16.3 kg/m2), age of onset (7.4 vs. 7.8 years), random C-peptide levels (203 vs. 311 pmol/l), HbA1c levels (13.2 vs. 12.7%), and frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation (53.3 vs. 55%).

Conclusion: Prevalence of antibodies at presentation of DM in Singapore (41.5%) is lower than in Caucasian populations (60-90%). Other autoantibodies yet to be identified may be contributory. Alternatively, non-immune mediated mechanisms may be responsible for a significant proportion of type 1 DM in Singapore children.

MeSH terms

  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group*
  • Autoantibodies / analysis*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Female
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology*
  • Male
  • Singapore


  • Autoantibodies
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase