Objective: To report new strategies in the treatment of persistent memory deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a combination of pharmacology and neuropsychological training. Study design: Two studies were carried out. The first study measured the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of seven Patients with TBI with very severe memory deficits, once while resting and once one hour after the administration of citicholine (CDPc). In the second study, two groups of five patients of the same characteristics underwent an ecological neuropsychological memory rehabilitation program; during which time, one group was administered a placebo (Group A), and the other received CDPc (1~g/d v.o.) (Group B). Results: The results of Experiment 1 showed a hypoperfusion of the inferior left temporal cerebral blood flow during rest state while an induced normalization was observed after administration of the drug. Results of Experiment 2 showed no improvements in Group A's neuropsychological functions, while memory, learning processes and verbal fluency of Group B improved significantly after treatment. Conclusions: CDP-choline seems to be a drug with special affinity for cerebral areas associated with memory acting just where needed, normalizing blood flow in the hypoperfused left temporo-basal region, and making neuropsychological training effective. In general, data suggests that cognitive rehabilitation would follow the principle of first restoring and maintaining cerebral blood flow in the lesional site and then exercising function. In this study on memory rehabilitation, memory recuperation was made possible by first normalizing blood flow at the lesional site and at the same time applying neuropsychological training.