We aimed to assess the patterns of recurrence after surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and the outcomes of treatment in patients with recurrence. From 1981 to 1999, 123 patients with ICC underwent hepatectomy. The 3-year and 5-year survival rates were significantly higher in patients after curative resection (n = 56; 53%, 50%) than in patients after noncurative resection (n = 67; 7%, 2%; P < 0.0001). In 54 patients followed-up after curative resection, the rate of recurrence after surgery was 46%. The recurrences were in the liver (56%), abdomen (disseminated; 24%), and lymph nodes (20%). The rates of recurrence were significantly higher in patients with various classifications of mass-forming ICC tumors (P = 0.039) than in those with other types of tumors, and in patients with tumors over 3 cm in greatest diameter than in those with tumors 3 cm or less (P = 0.006). Hepatic recurrence, abdominal dissemination, and intraductal recurrence were significantly related to tumors that included mass-forming ICC (P = 0.002), tumors that included periductal infiltrating ICC (P = 0.009), and tumors that included intraductal growth ICC (P = 0.038), respectively. Seven patients with recurrence underwent radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or surgical resection. Only 2 patients, with intrahepatic metastasis and intraductal recurrence, respectively, had good outcomes after surgery. The effectiveness of other treatments has not been established.