Stage of change, decisional balance, and temptations for smoking: measurement and validation in a large, school-based population of adolescents

Addict Behav. 2001 Jul-Aug;26(4):551-71. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4603(00)00144-1.


Developing interventions for reducing adolescent smoking rates based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) requires the development of quality measures of the key constructs of the model. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the psychometric properties of measures of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance and Situational Temptation for both smokers and nonsmokers and to test if the predicted relationships between these constructs were confirmed in a large (N=2808) sample of adolescents. A correlated three factor model (Social Pros, Coping Pros and Cons) provided an excellent fit to the 12-item Decisional Balance inventory for both smokers (CFI=0.957) and nonsmokers (CFI=0.963). A hierarchical four factor model (negative affect, positive social, habit strength and weight control) provided an excellent fit to the eight-item Situational Temptations inventory for smokers (CFI=0.969). A hierarchical five-factor model (same four as smokers plus Curiosity) provided an excellent fit to the 10-item Situational Temptations inventory for nonsmokers (CFI=0.943). The relationships between both the Decisional Balance and temptation scales and the Stages of Change were verified for both smokers and nonsmokers. The measures for adolescents are similar to but not the same as the measures of these constructs for adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior / psychology*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Decision Making*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Change Events
  • Male
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Students / psychology*