Anatomy and pathophysiology of facial aging

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2001 May;9(2):179-87, vii.


The major forces responsible for facial aging include gravity, soft tissue maturation, skeletal remodeling, muscular facial activity, and solar changes. This article discusses the anatomy and pathophysiology of facial aging by defining the affects of the aging process on the skeletal structure, skin, and musculature. How these changes affect the upper, mid, and lower thirds of the aging face is then examined.

MeSH terms

  • Aging / pathology
  • Aging / physiology*
  • Face*
  • Facial Bones / pathology
  • Facial Bones / physiology
  • Facial Muscles / pathology
  • Facial Muscles / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Skin Aging / pathology
  • Skin Aging / physiology*