Fifty years of research at the Framingham Heart Study have made important contributions to the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Within the scope of this prospective population-based cohort study, research investigations from the Framingham Nutrition Studies have developed and advanced nutritional epidemiologic methods, many of which are highlighted here. Ongoing nutrition research explores relationship between diet, nutritional status, and the development of chronic diseases, including CVD. This paper summarizes key findings from decades of nutrition research within the Framingham Heart Study. Cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations are described, including recent research on dietary patterns and coronary heart disease risk among women. Implications for the development of national nutrition policy, population-based dietary guidance for chronic disease prevention, and nutrition-related health promotion campaigns for CVD risk reduction are discussed.