Study results on the assessment of a community-wide HIV counseling and testing program are presented. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether HIV counseling and testing was effective in reducing high risk sexual behavior of a rural population in Uganda. From a total of 2,267 persons of Kigoyera Parish, western Uganda, who were HIV tested and counseled, 495 persons were selected and interviewed about their sexual behavior. Persons who were HIV tested showed no difference in sexual behavior compared to those who were not tested (condom use 4.3% vs. 5.5%, mean number of sexual partner in the past three months 1.8 vs. 2.0). The conclusion is that only knowing the HIV serostatus is not enough to reduce high risk behavior. The study results also showed that there is a demand for HIV counseling services without being HIV tested.