Research with children presents issues beyond those normally encountered in adult exercise science research. This paper explores the specific ethical issues that are encountered when conducting paediatric research in the exercise sciences. We identify the historical, moral and philosophical underpinnings of ethical conduct. The issue of consent and children's ability to provide informed consent is discussed, as is the nature of therapeutic and non-therapeutic research. Finally, we examine the information that is required by a local ethics and research committee and provide guidance material to help in the formulation of an application to such a committee.