Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification that alters the functions of the acceptor proteins and is catalyzed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes. Following DNA damage, activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) catalyzes the elongation and branching of poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) covalently attached to nuclear target proteins. Although the biological role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has not yet been defined, it has been implicated in many important cellular processes such as DNA repair and replication, modulation of chromatin structure, and apoptosis. The transient nature and modulation of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation depend on the activity of a unique cytoplasmic enzyme called poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase which hydrolyzes pADPr bound to acceptor proteins in free ADP-ribose residues. While the PARP homologues have been recently reviewed, there are relatively scarce data about PARG in the literature. Here we summarize the latest advances in the PARG field, addressing the question of its putative nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling that could enable the tight regulation of pADPr metabolism. This would contribute to the elucidation of the biological significance of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.
Copyright 2001 Academic Press.