An ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of a hydroxyapatite cement for use with vertebroplasty

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 Jul 15;26(14):1542-6. doi: 10.1097/00007632-200107150-00008.


Study design: Comparative ex vivo biomechanical study.

Objective: To determine the strength and stiffness of osteoporotic vertebral bodies subjected to compression fractures and stabilized via bipedicular injections of the following: 1) Simplex P (Stryker-Howmedica-Osteonics, Rutherford, NJ), 2) Simplex P formulated consistent with the practice of vertebroplasty (F2), or 3) BoneSource (Stryker-Howmedica-Osteonics).

Summary of background data: Little is known about the mechanical stabilization afforded by new materials proposed for use with vertebroplasty.

Methods: Vertebral bodies (T8-T10 and L2-L4) from each of 10 fresh spines were harvested from female cadavers (81 +/- 12 years), screened for bone density (t score, -3.8 +/- 1.1; bone mineral density, 0.75 +/- 15 g/cm2), disarticulated, and compressed to determine initial strength and stiffness. The fractured vertebral bodies were stabilized via bipedicular injections of 4 mL (thoracic) or 6 mL (lumbar) and then recrushed.

Results: Vertebral bodies repaired with Simplex P resulted in significantly greater strength (P < 0.05) relative to their prefracture states, those repaired with BoneSource resulted in the restoration of initial strength for both the thoracic and lumbar level, and those repaired with F2 resulted in significantly greater strength (P < 0.05) in the thoracic region and restoration of strength in the lumbar region. All cement treatments resulted in significantly less stiffness compared with initial values.

Conclusions: All three materials tested restored or increased vertebral body strength, but none restored stiffness. Both new materials show promise for use in percutaneous vertebroplasty, but they need clinical evaluation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bone Cements / therapeutic use*
  • Bone Density / physiology
  • Cadaver
  • Compressive Strength / drug effects
  • Compressive Strength / physiology
  • Durapatite / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods*
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / injuries
  • Materials Testing
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / surgery*
  • Pliability / drug effects
  • Polymethyl Methacrylate / therapeutic use
  • Radiography
  • Spinal Fractures / surgery*
  • Thoracic Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Thoracic Vertebrae / injuries


  • Bone Cements
  • Polymethyl Methacrylate
  • Durapatite