A prospective study of predictors for foot ulceration in type 2 diabetes

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2001 Jul-Aug;91(7):343-50. doi: 10.7547/87507315-91-7-343.


One hundred eighty-seven type 2 diabetic patients without a history of foot ulceration were followed for a mean period of 3.6 years to investigate the incidence of foot ulceration in a diabetes cohort and to analyze risk factors for foot ulceration by multivariate means. During the study, 10 subjects developed 18 forefoot ulcerations. In multivariate logistic regression, significant predictors for foot ulceration were an elevated vibration perception threshold (VPT) (relative risk [RR] = 25.4), an increased plantar pressure (RR = 6.3), and daily alcohol intake (RR = 5.1). This is the first prospective study to demonstrate plantar pressure and daily alcohol intake as predictors of foot ulceration among patients without previous ulceration. Further, VPT could be confirmed as the strongest predictor for foot ulceration, and it was clearly demonstrated that the more pronounced severity of complications occurred among subjects with elevated VPT.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diabetic Foot / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Foot / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors