Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), after the administration of an extracellular, gadolinium-based contrast medium, can be used to detect and characterize human tumours. The success of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is dependent on its ability to demonstrate intrinsic differences between a variety of tissues that affect contrast medium behaviour. Evidence is mounting that DCE-MRI measurements correlate with immunohistochemical surrogates of tumour angiogenesis. DCE-MRI can monitor the effectiveness of a variety of treatments including chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation, radiotherapy and novel therapeutic approaches including antiangiogenic drugs. Kinetic parameters in the treatment setting have been correlated with histopathological outcome and patient survival. This article reviews quantification analysis of these studies together with current and future clinical applications.