Suffering chronic pain is a common and debilitating problem that significantly impairs the quality of life of affected patients. Because we continue to struggle with chronic pelvic pain disorders both diagnostically and therapeutically, a neuro-behavioral perspective should be used in an attempt to explain pathways and neurophysiological mechanisms, and to improve diagnostics and treatment of male pelvic pain. First, however, malignant and acute/chronic bacterial disease has to be excluded as a cause of chronic pain in every single case. Then diagnostic approaches should screen for lower urinary tract dysfunction, pelvic floor functional disorders, and disturbed reflex integrity within the pelvic area. Treatment approaches for the male chronic pelvic pain syndrome could be divided into causal and symptomatic. Causal treatment approaches try to influence basic mechanisms generating and supporting chronic pain. In most cases a symptomatic approach is needed to relieve pain immediately. Because generally accepted treatment protocols and studies are missing, the following approach in the individual patient is recommended: (1) symptomatic treatment for immediate pain relief, (2) diagnostic work-up, (3) causal treatment trial.