This article presents findings from a before-and-after study of the effects of neighbourhood renewal on residents' health. Survey data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Before the renewal programme, damp and draughts had significant independent effects on respiratory health problems. Draughts and perceived community safety were associated with mental health problems. Children's mental health was associated with parental mental health. Following the renewal work, improvements occurred in both adults' and children's mental health, and smoking declined sharply. Respiratory health did not improve and there was no change in use of health services. Neighbourhood renewal in deprived areas can have an important role in improving community health.